Stuck? It’s all in the manual.


For most cars, there is a manual that shows you how to keep them ticking. I’m speaking of a car repair manual, not an owner’s manual. The car repair manual shouldn’t be confused with the manual that comes from the manufacturer which is usually kept in the glove compartment, forgotten until you get a light on your dash. I’m speaking of a book to consult because you own that type of car—even before something has had a chance to go wrong.

The goal is to be thorough:

  • How to take the car apart and put it back right
  • How to figure out what might be wrong
  • Give you the information to decide if you can take it on yourself or should seek a professional

One of the big names in the car manual arena is Haynes, covering 300 different makes of car and 130 makes of motorcycle. While there are technical manuals aimed at professional and semi-pro mechanics, Haines targets the amateur, do it yourself, owner.

Haines manuals began with the humblest of starts—when he bought an Austin 7 for £15, the equivalent of $160 today and wrote his first article about it. In that first article, Haynes wrote more about building special parts for the car rather than maintenance as such. For his first actual guide, Haynes chose not to write about the Austin Healey Sprite; an open top sports car which ceased being made in 1971. Clearly, he was our type of car guy.

John Haynes wrote yet one more car book while doing National Service with the Royal Airforce. National Service was a common occurrence for people in their 20s during the early 1950s. He didn’t launch his publishing house, J. H. Haynes & Co. Limited, until 1960.

The books concerned themselves with covering the whole process of repair step by step. The original work was created using a steel duplicator, also known as a mimeograph, which is similar to what you might find in a teachers resource room at a local grade school. A useful bit of kit, but not created for manufacturing of books. As they became more commercially successful, more conventional means of printing were found.

The Haines manuals have been written in 15 different languages. If this seems quite small, think about trying to translate a technical manual, especially if techniques of service and maintenance differ in the countries involved. Another problem is that some components may be unavailable in specific areas. Haynes is now owned by the Chilton Company, who started their business writing cycling magazines and is now one of the largest publishing companies in the world.

You can find repair manuals on various items of automobile equipment such as battery chargers, GPS and even trailers. There are a number of websites you can search for the right manual, which kinds of begs the question why you shouldn’t just search for what is going wrong with your car. Still, people like manuals and many can be obtained for free, sometimes in the form of PDFs.

Due to the amount of litigation involved, car manuals have become larger and larger. This may be a problem if you want to find the information quickly.

It would be a shame if the manual, whether the manufacturer’s manual or one created by aficionados of the car were suddenly removed. The act of publishing a manual kind of shows that people are taking interest in the “technical feat” of building a car, much more than several pages on the internet.

If it weren’t adding something to the owner’s experience manufacturers would surely give up on producing their owner’s manual just to save the money. As for Haynes, the aficionado’s manual is like a nice set of tools. It says you care about your vehicle enough to be personally involved with it. Hopefully car lovers continue to buy them, and hopefully, guys like Haines keep making them.

Why We Hate Parking So Much


girl-923101_1920What generates about 29 billion dollars for the US every year?

No, it’s not the manufacturer of a certain car but the habit of needing somewhere to park them. It may be one of the first things you learn on in your driving test, but that doesn’t mean everyone likes to do it, and we feel like the butt of some joke when we can’t do it right.

It is strange to talk about “parking growth areas” but that’s the term used by people who have to study these trends. States like California have noticed an increase in the rate of increased need. That’s a tongue twister.

Most parking lots exist for employees, but not by a large margin. There is also student parking, airport parking, stadium parking, and parking to shop at the mall. Any building which is constantly visited needs somewhere to people to park. But then again, so do various gardens, national parks and so on. The most dreaded of all parking is “ON THE STREET.”

It comes as no surprise that the parking meter was an American invention although it wasn’t created by someone in New York or Los Angeles but for Oklahoma City. The name parking meter is a corruption of the brand name of the first parking meter, the “Park-O-Meter.” Surprisingly, Park-O-Meter didn’t take off as a business model, probably because the metered spots were in a lot, rather than kerbside parking spaces as we tend to see it today. The also charged 5 cents to park for 15 minutes, which seems cheap until you learn that this is the equivalent of a dollar in today’s parking.

The problem of cars being parked in the wrong place is as old as cars themselves. The parking clamp, or Denver Boot, was another American invention. Strangely enough, it was invented by Frank Marugg, a violinist who performed at the Denver Sympathy Orchestra. Exactly what a violinist knows about keeping vehicles secure remains a mystery. The first Boots were made of steel but were later changed to aluminum. There are now various versions of clamps across the world.


Valet parking is hardly new, but the idea that your car can park itself is gaining traction. Despite the idea that self-driving seems in its infancy a huge amount of money has been invested in self-parking (AKA autonomous parking). Cars parking themselves will somehow mix with cars being parked by humans. Predictably, regardless of how successful self-parking cars are unto themselves, the interaction between them and traditional, driver parked cars could cause issues.

Parking is tricky for some folks. Others hate driving past their destination to an unsavory alley with a faint urine smell, only to walk several blocks in the rain back to your destination. Perhaps the real reason why parking is hated so much is that people own cars to see wide open spaces and beautiful scenery. The parking garage is loathed by most but is a necessary evil if you want to explore a town or a city. So it looks like we’re stuck with it.


The Weird World of Kit Cars


The idea of assembling an object sent over in the post might work with something like a closet organizer or a dresser but it’s a bit different with a car. For a start, there are more parts!

The first question you might ask is, why build a car? Why not just buy one from a showroom?

Well, there are a number of reasons you might build a car; one is if the car is used in a competitive activity such as hill climbing or road racing. Shows like Junkyard Challenge show how you mix and match different cars to make them better suited for specific occupations. Or you just might want a unique kind of car that different from anything else on the road.

Technically custom-built cars, those built for racing or climbing mountains, are not the same thing as a kit car per se. A kit car is a definite commercial item; it just comes in a form different from other cars.

Then What is a Kit Car?

With a kit car, you will find the more important components such as the engine and the transmission system come from donor vehicles which of course you need to buy elsewhere. So, far from keeping costs down, you might be creating expense. It is hardly the cheapest option and it can become an expensive hobby.

How much of a car is included in a kit car? Surprisingly it might be none at all; you might just have bought a list of instructions. Alternatively, you might obtain every single component a car might need; all you have to do is fit them together. Sound simple?

History of Kits?

There is a long history of kit cars, going back to 1896. Before Ford’s assembly line, car makers experimented with several ways to make them affordable. The opportunity to own one seemed to interest the magazine called The English Mechanic which showed how to build a car of your own. The first US kit car went by the macho name of “Lad’s Car”, costing about $160 in 1926, which translates as $2,200 today. It did take a bit of time to get going, not quite reaching its stride until the 1950s. Since so much went wrong with the cars of the day, people preferred to own the car showroom models.

What About Cost?

One technological advance that made the kit car more viable was the introduction of fiberglass into automaking. This brought the prices of the cars right down because the parts were cheaper to manufacture and lighter, and therefore cheaper, to ship.

Kit cars do offer potential cost savings of prebuilt models. If you are willing to accept a car that looks like a fancy custom vehicle but isn’t actually that vehicle with it’s brand name price, you could get most of the experience of owning such a car. For example, some cars are rare and collectible. Why pay collector rates when you just want to drive around is something cool. Taxes are another potential savings. If you pay sales tax on a junk car with good bones and then use a kit to cherry it out, you aren’t paying sales tax on the cost of all your labor.

The most famous kit car…

The most famous kit car is probably the Lotus but the AC Cobra is still being made. Many current models are replicas of older models – it seems that the designs of the cars haven’t changed for decades.

Possibly there could be a market for a new style of kit car, one that takes on the latest ideas of what cars are. It seems that we need to get over the idea that home assembly is too difficult for the novice, experimenting with new ideas and forms might be what it’s all about.


4 Checkpoints When Buying a Classic Car


Classic car restoration can be a beast, even for DIY mechanics with plenty of experience. Depending on the needs of your classic ride, there’s bound to be at least a few areas where you’re not skilled—working out dents, re-upholstering or simply having connections to the right dealers who have original parts. For many people, owning a restored classic car is a major item on their bucket list. However, it’s easy to get stuck with a lemon.

It’s also easy to spend several thousand dollars on restoration, ultimately getting you a car that (albeit close to perfect) you’ve dumped way too much money into. When shopping for a classic car project, there are a few checkpoints to carefully consider. Simultaneously, you should also have a restoration shop in your corner who provides quality results that work with your budget.

  1. Rust=no go

jaguar-3366957_1920.jpgRust is fairly common, and when it’s minimal and just on the surface, you might be able to power wash it off. However, if the chassis has been destroyed or if you’ll need to totally replace steel panels, it’s not worth it. It’s not unusual to strip the chassis, sandblast it, remove sections and weld brand new pieces together. This isn’t just expensive, but ultimately means it’s not an original car. Only the lucky few can find replacement panels, but most need to create makeshift panels themselves. Rust buckets should be reserved for only the very skilled (or the very wealthy).

  1. Focus on value

auto-3351802_1920There are tons of old cars out there, but age alone doesn’t make a car a classic. While there will always be niche markets for pretty much every car, you deserve one that retains its value. Never let impulses control your purchase, and spend some time researching the most reliable classic cars that won’t lose their value. Bonus points if you snag a car that appreciates—and remember that upfront costs are only a small portion of what you’ll be spending.

  1. Check for replacement parts

auto-3352982_1920Assuming the worst case scenario happens and you have to replace a lot of parts, how easy are they to find? How affordable are they? Purchasing a really rare car is a thrill, but if they don’t make it anymore (or the manufacturer no longer exists), it’s going to be tough to find aftermarket parts. Pretend like you’re searching for parts well before making the purchase, and experience first-hand what might be in store.

  1. Power up

abandoned-3401168_1920At the very least, you need a car that easily starts and runs. If it overheats during the test drive, is cranky to start or the current owner promises “all it needs is a new battery,” be wary. If the battery story is true, most owners would spring for that cheap part in order to sell their car. A more likely scenario is a seized or otherwise destroyed engine that needs replacing.

Ideally, you have an expert on hand who can run diagnostics on the car before you make an offer. If the seller is on the up and up, they’ll be happy to let a pro take a look. If they resist, they’re probably hiding something and you’re better off continuing your hunt elsewhere.

Slow Down There, Speed Racer


Make Sure Truck Insurance is Protecting Precious Cargo

            You might be souping up rides for weekend warrior activities, or to show off at the upcoming auto show, but either way, protection is crucial. Make sure your car insurance is as solid as your ride. You can save cash by taking a defensive driver course that is state approved. This is a relatively easy way to lower costs and can help prevent an accident during those winter months when roads are icy. Drivers can also get a discount by combining policies and having house, vehicle, and even ATV coverage handled all in one place.

Disaster Isn’t Just on the Speedway

A lot of people grew up watching high-speed races on television, and it seems like that has extended to daily commutes, too. Almost 20 percent of all accidents are speed related and some people mistakenly assume things are safe in a heavy truck. Bigger vehicles might offer more protection, but there is still plenty of room for injuries and extensive damages. That custom ride deserves custom coverage to make sure that all of the bells and whistles are safeguarded should an accident happen.

pickup-truck-1700954_1920Weekends are often spent giving that prized possession the attention she deserves with tune-ups, modifications, and careful detailing. Make sure the same care is paid to protecting her on the road, whether it is a simple weekend trip or en route to the auto show. Low riders and big rigs alike need special defenses that only an expert truck insurance agent can provide.

Keep in mind that not all insurance packages are created equal, and some do not offer enhanced towing and labor which means the truck might be stranded on the side of the road. Towing fees are expensive, but adding this option on is a nominal fee. Situations are already stressful enough when a vehicle breaks down or is in an accident without worrying over how to get it to the shop.

Trouble does not end when vehicles are parked at home because there is always criminal mischief around. Grand theft auto is a serious threat and modified automobiles are even more at risk. Some thieves just cannot resist all of that custom work or high tech stereo equipment that is so easily accessible.

Who’s Checking Out Your Ride?

truck-956246_1920Sure, drivers expect some admiring glances after putting in all that elbow grease to modify the vehicle. However, remember that thieves are also taking a look at the goods and might be planning to ride off into the sunset in the lifted Jeep or restored Chevy. Take some precautions to make things more difficult for aspiring thieves.

People might remember “the club” from the 1990’s and fortunately, there have been some major improvements in terms of safeguarding automobiles. Installing a noise or motion sensor alarm is a good way to deter thieves. Simple stickers warning of an alarm might be enough to make criminals move on.

Families work hard to make a living, and investing some of that dough into high horse-powered machines is a rewarding hobby. Think about all of the time and money spent on the rig and how easily it can all be taken away. As you gear up for summer car shows, make sure you keep your ride and yourself well protected.


Of Presidents and their Cars


Sometimes we don’t think about why things are the way they are, we just accept them. For example, why, in a “car country” like the U.S., does neither the president nor the vice president drive on public roads? It’s not actually a law, that they can’t, but its official policy.

Perhaps the image that springs to mind is of a chauffeur ferrying the president about to important appointments–occasionally chatting with the POTUS about his day. In actual fact, the presidents’ drivers are part of their security team who is highly trained to take evasive action when necessary.

This all stemmed from the assassination of JFK. Even though the President wasn’t actually driving when that occurred, it reshaped how the secret service looked at threats during transport.

PresidentReaganLeaningonhisCJ8-700x469Still, a number of presidents find ways around the rule. Noted Jeep enthusiast, Ronald Regan drove a number of jeeps off-road, which some might think is more dangerous. He and Nancy bought a working 688-acre ranch in California to get away from the politics when he was governor and kept in through his Presidency. Hard to say if he did any stunt driving while acting, but he did get a vanity plate for the jeep that read, “Gipper.”

Which president sacrificed the biggest in terms of loving to drive? That depends on how you measure it. Donald Trump was certainly already accustomed to someone else doing the driving, however, he put the largest car collection of any President-Elect to garage until the end of his time in the White House. From a 1956 Rolls to a 2003 Merc all must remain in the garage. It’s a wonder why he wanted the job really.


On the bright side, traffic is no longer a problem. As you can imagine, the chief benefit of being a world leader is that your driver needn’t stop for a traffic light and even if things get really bad you can just go by helicopter instead.


Contrary to popular belief, there are several plains outfitted for the President, and whichever one he’s on becomes “Airforce One.” Likewise, whichever helicopter he takes is “Marine One.” The car equivalent is Limousine One, AKA the First Car, but it’s seldom called that. Most reporters and security personnel seem to refer to the main armored limousine containing the president by a codename, “The Beast.”

It kinds of make sense if you had a limousine that you wouldn’t drive it yourself, you’d hand over the keys to someone else. Perhaps doubly so if you’re running a nation 24/7.

Interestingly, with all the flags, etc. it still has Washington D.C. numbered plates. (Some national leaders don’t, the Queen of England for example.) This started in 2013 is most notable because the D.C. plates contain the Moto of Washington D.C. “Taxation without representation.” (The reference is to D.C. not having any representation in Congress but still paying federal taxes.)

Where is the car kept? Well, the 1910s were a tipping point in the car versus horse debate and the stables at the White House were converted into a garage at that time. Fear not, the President still has access to horses but they are kept elsewhere. Mostly though, the only time you’d see a presidential horse is at the swearing-in ceremony or at a president’s funeral; they have gone out of favor in recent years.

As most people know the Beast and its retinue of cars form what is known as “motorcade”. It should come as no surprise the term was coined by an automobile reporter in 1912 who worked for Arizona Republican. One of the vehicles in a presidential or vice-presidential motorcade is a Chevrolet Suburban, equipped with ECM (electronic countermeasures) to protects against guided attacks from a number of devices.

The Beast itself is highly customized by GMC, but most resembles a Cadillac. The Secret Service gives precise specs for the vehicle but obviously tells very little details about it. We are told it costs between $300,000 and $1.5 million. That’s a big range.

As of 2009, the weight increased drastically which necessitated higher capacity tires. Clearly visible to expert eyes are Goodyear Reginal RHS tires meant for trucks. Much of the weight comes from the armor plating and 5 inch thick, bulletproof glass.

The cabin is airtight against gas attacks, which creates some quirks. For example, there are no keyholes. The Passenger doors are opened via a method the Secret Service doesn’t disclose. Notice a theme here? Another quirk, the only window that rolls up or down is the drivers. Let’s hope it’s a powered window. Who wants to crank that puppy up and down?

rendering-of-new-presidential-limoThe Beast also contains fire extinguishers, 1st aid kits, and 2 pints of the blood in the Presidents type. But the best defense is a good offense, and the Beast’s offensive capabilities, include rocket-propelled grenades, a tear gas cannon, pump action shotguns, and infra-red smoke grenades. Okay, now I’m envious.

Finally, before you ask, yes the Beast Goes pretty much everywhere with the president. They have around 13 of them and they load them into c-130 aircraft even on trips to Asia.

It seems the Secret Service has responded adequately to the black eye they got from JFK’s assassination.


The Peak and Decline of Route 66


To find the hay day of Route 66, we need to find out when the song Get Your Kicks On Route 66 was composed. Most people attribute it to Chuck Berry, though covers have also been done by Perry Como, Them and The Rolling Stones. There has been a myriad of versions. However n, t many people know the first version was recorded in 1946 by the King Cole Trio (which featured Nat King Cole and was created about a year before by Bobby Troupe.

Unsurprisingly, the idea of the song came from a road trip across America using the infamous route. Troup wanted to write about the Route 40, to begin with but was persuaded to write about the Route 66 instead. (It seems strange if he was on the Route 40 to write about the Route 66 as they go to different places. Such is the story of songwriting I suppose.)

This post isn’t about how the road inspired the song but how the road has sadly declined since the song was written. It’s understandable. Nothing lasts forever, and roads are more fragile than they

Since a route is really a collection of shorter roads chained up, some of those shorter roads rose and fell in need or popularity. So they swapped them in and out which had an impact. For example, in 1930 parts of Route 66 was shifted east to fit in with what would become the Interstate-55. In Downton St. Luis MO, Route 66 went down Market Street and up Manchester Road but this was changed. In the 1960’s Route 66 abandoned Oatman in the Black Mountains, in effect killing its main thoroughfare. There were too many alternations to list them all.

It seems the decline of the Route comes down to the signing of the Interstate Highway Act by Dwight D Eisenhower in 1956. The whole purpose of the act was to create improved highways, based on Eisenhower’s experiences with the autobahns of Germany. The route that Route 66 just wasn’t direct enough, and it made more sense to bypass slow city streets and chain up the bypasses.

route-66-2472502_1920It would be a long process; however, taking until the late 60s before most of Interstate-40 was completed as far as New Mexico. Although there were plans to turn the section between St Louis and Oklahoma into “Interstate-66” it never came to fruition. The final nail in Route 66’s coffin didn’t come until 1985 with the decertification of the road by the American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials.

The American Autobahn dream didn’t happen either. Business execs and travelling salesmen began to fly instead and the fascination with seeing this great land for yourself, one diner/motel/ local attraction at a time declined. For those who did want ground travel as a past time made due with “little” Interstate highways.

The loss of tourism for the little towns was nothing short of disastrous. Once glorious Route 66 became littered with empty gas stations and abandoned small towns. Sadly, much of Route 66 stopped being road completely, becoming wild. Others were turned into what are known as “sidewalk roads” in other words roads only suitable for hikers.

friends-1255442_1920Nowadays people travel sections of Route 66 for nostalgia even if they never travelled the route when it was open. Route 66 embodied a spirit of pride in America that’s been niche partitioned out of the way by business. When you travel slower you see more, and some would argue, that you live more. It would be sad to think that airplanes and highways helped disconnect Americans from the heartbeat of their national identity. Hopefully, the decline of Route 66 is not a harbinger of a larger sense of American culture.

There is hope of course. Workampers and Newmads are showing a greater interest in exploring life on the road. Perhaps soon we’ll see fall in love again, with small towns, fields of grain, unique bridges, and giant balls of string. We can hope.


The Rise of Route 66

Wimsett_Route 66b

By Paul Wimsett

A blog like the Kicker is about transportation and that’s a bigger topic than just vehicles. The greatest roads in the world predate the car by several centuries. And the road which would become Route 66 (at least in part) is (or was) certainly one of the world’s greatest roads. The famous shield logos were put up only a year after the Route 66 became operational.

The origins amazingly go back to hunting trails going back as far as 9,000 BC which in turn were used by later explorers in search of gold. Its next incarnation would be a wagon road as Lieutenant Edward Beale set down markers (the fact that he needed to do this would suggest that the “track” was more or less invisible in parts.Wimsett_route 66a.jpg

Instead of wagons, the preferred method of travel in the 1880s was the train. Even these would follow similar routes as the later Route 66. But it’s not until the Twentieth Century that it was rechristened an “ocean to ocean highway” and became a paved road. The group who had the privilege to build (or rebuild) this great route were the Corps of Topographical Engineers.

But who exactly were the Corps of Topographical Engineers? They were a strange body in many ways, firstly because they consisted entirely of officers. As well as mapping regions they also helped design lighthouses, harbors and navigational routes including lake and creek surveys and boundary and railroad surveys.

Unlike modern highways, which were developed as part of the war effort to act as impromptu runways, a route like route 66 was a deliberate effort to cobble together a path across country by linking up existing roadways. Often routes meandered overtime as needs and opportunities changed. Apart from staying roughly along the 35th Parallel route 66 would change too. During paving, someone decided the road would go through Peoria instead of Bloomington. The old trail was abandoned between Oklahoma City to Amarillo as the Postal Highway had already had already been developed.

Wimsett_Route 66_chain-of-rocks-bridge_1920That’s not to say that elements of original dirt track can’t be found, try looking to the north of Cajon today. It’s a genuine part of the pre-highway history of the USA.

But the road was still not suitable for two lanes of traffic so a number of changes would have to be made. After lobbying the American Association of State Highways the contract was won by Cyrus Avery and John Woodruff. But they decided that the old name; “National Old Trails Road” wasn’t the best name for a legendary road.

The name “Route 66” seems only for alliterative purposes, there being no Route 65 or 67. On November 11, 1926 the new name for the road was confirmed and the acclaimed Route 66 was born. In turn the road would be promoted by the US 66 Highway Association. Its promotions were adverts in magazines and distributed souvenirs.

The main feature as regarding promotions seems to be the International Transcontinental Footrace or, as the journalists named it, the Bunion Derby with a huge $25,000 grand prize. It seemed that, whether walking or in vehicle, everyone wanted to be part of the Route 66’s history.

The story of Route 66’s further rise to fame and eventual decline will be told in a later blog.

A Glance at Car Culture Past to Future


S Larson_Henry Ford

Henry Ford


There is much debate about when the first car was introduced to the world. From the early 1800s all the way up until the 1900s, numerous designs were patented and produced throughout the world. However, it was not until the early 1900s when the first full-scale automobile assembly lines were introduced that production of the car really ramped up. The introduction of the car helped shape and growing world economies and also shifted cultural mindsets. With the increased production, there was an increase in the need for skilled labourers and with that came the reinvestment of wages into the economy. Never before did people of all walks of life have access to a means of transportation that could take them to even the most remote places of the world in a much more compressed length of time. The wealthy were no longer the only ones who could afford to shape the cultural patterns of their countries since these workers also became a substantial wedge of the market share.

S Larson_WWII Motorcycle

Car culture continued to grow over the years especially with the use of motorcycles and vehicles during World War I and II, but nothing screams quintessential car culture more than muscle cars. Interestingly enough, the need for speed developed early in the 1900s during prohibition times, but it wasn’t until 1949 that the first official muscle car, the Rocket 88, was debuted by Oldsmobile. It had a lightweight frame with a powerful V8 engine. After its introduction, the Rocket 88 became popular within the NASCAR world, which helped to elevate the muscle car amongst American car culture. By the mid-1950s, muscle cars had begun to dominate the market with American automakers Chrysler and Chevrolet contributing heavily. It was during this time that Chrysler first introduced the Hemi engine, which was a series of V8 engines that used a hemispherically shaped combustion chamber. It had advantages over the tradition reverse-flow cylinder combustion chambers and allowed muscle cars to reach much sought after speeds.

S Larson_Olds rocket-88.jpg

With the increased desire in speed, there came a larger concern for safety and regulation. Car manufacturers became increasingly aware of the need for such things as safety harnesses, reinforced framework, door locks, and even airbags. Throughout the late 1950s and into the 60s, these safety features became more standardized on vehicles, but it was until the late 60s when the first seat belt law was introduced in America.

Technological advancements have continued to dominate the car industry as the years have gone by. Every year cars get more and more upgraded features that not only incorporate safety but are user-friendly and meant to make the drive a pleasant experience for all. Some interesting new developments include the introduction of ADAS windshield technology and the self-driving car. ADAs technology assists drivers through a network of sensors and direct connections to the vehicle while promoting safe driving. The self-driving car has always been somewhat of a fantasy, but car companies such as Tesla have pushed to make it a mainstay in the car industry. They already produce cars capable of full autonomy but have yet to implement all the capabilities at this time.


However, car culture may be slowly coming to end outside of people’s personal hobbies. Studies have begun to show that the younger generations are moving away from buying and owning vehicles. With the introduction of companies like Uber and Lyft and the growing push for greener solutions, we may be seeing fewer vehicles on the road in the very near future.