The Love of Three Wheeled Cars

Is a three-wheeler a car, or a bike? It depends on who you ask.

Designs of three wheeled cars vary, some are similar to motorized tricycles, some are more van-like, there are also those which are unmotorized as such.

How do cars stay upright? Why don’t they just fall to one side? They have the plus point of lower production costs, fewer parts to buy and less time to assemble, though the chassis must surely cost more than a traditional chassis.

Due to the CanAm Spider, people think three wheeled cars are a comparatively recent invention, but they have a long history.

Historically, the big reason for a three wheeled vehicle is to avoid special taxes levied on cars. And that continued to be the case for many centuries, at least in the UK.

Early Three Wheeled Cars

The first three wheeled car was powered by steam. It was hard to manoeuvre and crashed into a wall; not surprising as the intricacies of driving were a mystery at this point. It did however have a poor distribution of weight.

Morgan 3 Wheeler

Karl Benz invented the first motor car with three wheels but only 25 were sold between 1886 and 1893. It could be thought of an idea before its time.

Henry Morgan used a two-cylinder Peugeot engine and although he originally wished to manufacture a motorcycle he decided instead to turn it into a three wheeled car. It was first shown in Olympia in London during 1910.

There were a number of teething troubles, the public was looking for a vehicle which had more than one seat and Morgan had designed a one seat car. Unbowed, he went back to basics and produced a two-seater three wheeled car for 1911 which in turn was sold by Harrod’s department store.

Reliant Robyn

The Bond Minicar and the BMW Isetta were produced just after the second world war. Most drivers preferred the Mini as a smaller vehicle but there was always a niche market of buyers. Isetta is a bubble car company originating in Italy but other countries such as Argentina, France and UK built it under license. The company originally manufactured refrigerators.

The Campaigna T-Rex is a sleek Canadian car powered by a BMW engine. It first hit the market in 1996. Its balance is maintained by having two strong wheels in front. It produces 160hp, not bad for such a small vehicle.

Polaris Slingshot

The story of the Reliant Robin originated in the work of a bicycle company (Raleigh). The design of the car was created by Ogle Design, a famous car and transport design consultancy company which also created Triumph motorcycles and Chopper bikes. Although the company was founded in 1935 it didn’t produce a car until 1952. The last three wheeled car was produced in December 2011.

Next, we have the Polaris Slingshot which uses a four cylinder engine sourced by General Motors. This one has 173 horsepower, the first model unveiled in 2014. Should you wish to open it up it is helpful to know that it has a 5-speed manual transmission. It is marketed as a three wheeled motorcycle, rather than a car.

It does seem somewhat of a shame that three wheeled vehicles haven’t yet passed into the mainstream despite the many fans of these vehicles.

Cars and Headaches

What causes headaches in a car? Some kids get headaches in a car watching TV or using tablets. The new car smell could start a headache, which does seem unfortunate if you’re lucky to be driving a new car.

Flickering lights may cause migraines – these are generally found when driving late in the afternoon or at night. A similar night-time concern is eyestrain. But driving in the bright sunny hours could also cause a headache, more specifically driving towards the sun’s glare which can be prevented by sunglasses. The beeping of horns and the rush of trucks doesn’t help either.

Migraines

Even worse, a specific type of migraine – hemiplegic migraine – causes a migraine on one side of the face. It is actually forbidden to drive or use machinery if you are prone to hemiplegic migraine.

Tinnitus, an ear-ringing sound, may affect your ability to drive.

Changing altitudes could also trigger a migraine.

Nausea and vomiting are associated with headaches and can be dangerous for drivers behind the wheel. Your vision may also be affected leading to blurred vision, seeing spots or not being able to see objects at the side of your vision which you normally would.

A little-known fact is that the posture of how you sit when driving can also cause headaches, such as not having your shoulders pulled back. This can put pressure at the top of the spine. A “posterior headache” or a headache at the back of the brain is common among truck drivers as the seat and inflexible kind, so it is better to adjust it for your height and make it as comfortable as possible. Having stretches at the usual rest stops can help prevent this condition.

A tension headache is specific to people who drive for long periods, especially on a cold day. It’s a dull head pain, different from a migraine. It’s not unusual to get facial pain.

Plan Ahead to Avoid Headaches

To reduce the chance of a migraine you should find time to plan ahead, know where you are going. To keep the pressure down, stick all your travel details together such as maps, booking info and so on. Eat well, no processed food, find a good source of protein, fat and fiber. Hunger means a decrease in blood sugar levels. There may be obstacles doing this at usual rest stops. Watch out for time zone differences too.

As well as food it’s a good idea to have a bottle of water handy as it can prevent being dehydrated and this can lead to a migraine. Bad drivers tend to clench their teeth or grind their teeth while in tough driving situations. But this tends to cause tension in the face and then headache.

Don’t overdo it, when not driving it’s best to take a break, especially if it’s a long journey.

If you do feel a migraine or headache coming on, pull off the road. If the migraine continues for some time – and unfortunately some of the worst headaches can continue for 3 days – get a friend to pick you up if it’s at all possible.

It’s always the best route to remain safe on the road.

Reusing and Recycling Car Parts

A car is actually made of 30,000 distinct and different parts, though you would be hard pressed to name them all. For starters there’s the headlights and the other lights, all the seats and upholstery, mirrors, engines, hubcaps and so on. We think these parts disappear when they are crushed but it’s vital as many parts as possible are recycled. More so with some parts than others. Many of these must be reused or destroyed.

Let’s look at the pieces that make the car up one by one:

The windows are difficult to recycle due to having layers of plastic.

The car battery is a problem: they are toxic and so cannot be placed in the public waste. There are various other plastic parts which are also tricky to recycle, the only thing that can be done is to grind them down.

There are small metal parts that can be melted down.

Second-hand Market

There’s no reason why the carpets and so on cannot be sold off. There’s value in selling off items such as alternators too.

Watch out for used car parts, they could be made on the cheap meaning they are worn out easily. Anything from seat belts to spark plugs could be counterfeited. The other problem is that should something go wrong it can’t be recalled. You’re having to deal with parts which are more worn than the rest of the parts, meaning you have uneven wear in the car, not a good selling point. And in the worst-case scenario they could be from a car which has been involved in an accident, even scrapped. The only thing to avoid this is to attempt to go to the best dealer as possible and don’t go for cheaper prices.

In order to get the item you require you can search by the make and model of car. Going for the actual model is important especially if the car brand produces a range of cars.

Aftermarket vs Used

You will find references to aftermarket car parts online. This may have been covered before but it simply means parts which aren’t made by the original car brand. They aren’t made with an intent to deceive. They are used as replacement parts when bits wear out or become damaged. It can mean your insurance is affected if you install aftermarket parts though.

The opposite of aftermarket parts are also known as OEM or Original Equipment Manufacturer. Even mechanics prefer the original parts as many aftermarket parts do not even fit some models. The range of parts can be confusing too, so try to go for original parts if you can.

Some of the Wackier ReUse Ideas We’ve Discovered:

A 12 volt car battery can be used as a portable lighting system or as a power source for making medium sized robots, powering an electric car, running a radio studio and so on. You will need a power inverter though which will change the battery from direct current to alternating current. Remember that all household devices work on a different voltage-the quicker the voltage the quicker the battery will be drained.

Other transformations include a car hub to a beer table, assembling tires to create an assault course or, more simply, turning them into swings. Let’s face it, it’s your car, you can do what you like with the parts!

Looking Through Car Websites

The cliché is that a website is a shop window, but we can do more these days. What makes a car website a “good” website? It must have all the usual UXUI functionality we’ve come to expect, and a little bit more. It needs the kind of things you can only do on a car website—like a virtual test drive. Ideally, it should have everything you need in order to make a decision about which car you will end up with.

How does a virtual drive compare to an actual drive?

A bit of science: It seems people behave in a more reckless fashion in the virtual drive according to several studies, including Bella’s study in 2008 which would suggest that most people are more likely to let go in a virtual car than a real one.

In both real and virtual test drives the heart rate goes up as can be seen in Reimer and Melher’s study and both require the same amount of work and precision. You may possibly have thought that a virtual image could be more or less attractive than real life, but no, it needs to be as realistic.

There’s bad news too if you find driving stressful; you will find simulated driving stressful as well. (This was according to Walshe, Lewis, O’Sullivan and Kim’s study in 2017). According to the measured heart rate there was a slight feeling that you are in a vehicle and it’s under your control, even if it is patently obvious that this is not the case.

Apart from having a test drive how should the site be arranged?

Although first impressions count, and people examine the shine of the website before examining the goods it’s important not to be taken in by money spent on the website. Okay, it may be important that the website is optimized to your mobile device for instance, but what is more vital is how these vehicles look and what they are like to drive.

Layout:

So how to negotiate the car site? Various places online chose to publish the price of their vehicles from the highest to the lowest. They don’t do this because you would find the car on the front page and stop looking. They know you’ll keep searching until you find what you’re looking for…but there’s no reason not to make you walk past what you can’t afford on the way there. But there should be short cuts to cars most commonly bought.

Try seeing which cars are nearest to your zip code, there is little point in considering a car if it would need to be delivered and that incurs extra expense. If it’s used car inventory they should be willing to state the milage. It’s an important element to consider so it should be possible to filter for a range of mileage.

Selecting by brand is helpful if you know exactly which brand you require, but many don’t. Selecting by vehicle type would be better as you can compare brands but it will only show relevant cars.

Selecting by year of production is only that useful if you are sorting through vintage cars or classic cars. Selecting by mileage is a better way to judge the age of a car than the actual age.

It’s a good idea to look for the latest listings – most people ask themselves why are these cars still unsold – but it’s also worth seeing everything a site has to offer.

Choosing the Right Large SUV

Some people look for a compact SUV but what about those who are looking for something more substantial? The larger SUV provides an alternative to the 4×4 or MPV. They can be used for camping and helpful for navigating both tricky terrain and difficult weather conditions. They also provide more than sufficient cargo space.

Some Large SUV’s to Consider

The large SUV Tarraco by SEAT for instance has seven seats, the second row of which can be flattened to the floor. Other features include alloy wheels, digital cockpit and a bucket seat. This is a seat which encloses and supports a body more than a regular car seat.

The Kodiaq is also a seven-seater which has several refined models all with luxurious seating. The acceleration in particular is exhilarating.

The Ever Evolving Expedition

Ford Explorer 2021

The Ford Expedition has easy to understand controls for tech with a huge cabin seating 5-8. The horsepower is between 375 and 400 hp and has either two or three rows of seats. The 2018 update included both the fuel system and the cabin (to increase space and add new safety features). The 2020 model added a new breed of trim as well as the driver assist (the proper name being the CoPilot 360).

The next model in 2021 relies on two rows rather than three. It has an extended wheelbase as you might expect from a large SUV. The latch collectors in the second and the third row allow you to connect child seats. It has a six-speaker stereo allowing for improved sound quality.

The Chevrolet Suburban…

Reintroduced for 2021 with a turbodiesel engine, the Suburban gives you collision detection and will brake by itself in an emergency. Whether gas or diesel the engine is enormous, but sadly no electric model yet. There are certain difficulties to driving this model, you have to squeeze down narrow roads. It is good on rough terrain thanks to great suspension.

There were no changes to the Suburban in 2020 but 2019 saw the introduction of a 420 hp engine and automatic transmission with 10 different speeds. It’s a variation of the Chevrolet Tahao essentially, and despite the reinvented interior, it drives more or less the same. The Tahoe may be a better bet as it’s about a foot less in size.

The plastic in the Suburban, referred to as “soft-touch,” is the kind of quality you possibly could expect from an SUV, practical without being luxurious. It also comes with a 10.2 touch screen with extreme clarity of graphics with great definition.

Let’s look at a not so successful model…

…the Nissan Armada eats fuel and is basically a pig to drive, though it still has a passable entertainment system. The seats have this uncomfortable look – not that any car manufacturer purposely makes squirmy seats, but there’s something about the curves of it. Maybe a seat cover will improve it, but even so…

Nissan Armada 2020

It’s hard to find an example of a Volvo in this genre. The 2020 Volvo S90 was more a midsize SUV, but it did include a host of features such as spacious cabin, cruise control and heated front seats. It also has a moonroof – which in case you didn’t know is tinted glass which opens via tilting (if it opens at all) instead of sliding open like a sunroof.

A large SUV has plus points whether you live in the town or the city, it’s a family car which seems to dominate the road. All you need is to find the right engine and the right interior, and you’ve got it made.

Looking for the Right Motorbike

Ducati Panigale V4R

How do you find the top motorbike for you? Let’s look at Ducati, they have a range of bikes such as an off-roader called the Scrambler, a racing bike, otherwise known as the Panigale V4R and so on. Your motorbike purchase is dependent on where you wish to drive it and it’s a good idea to look at the specialist brand which you like.

How does the power compare?

When it comes to learner bikes, sports bikes or the off-road variety it can vary between 250 and 400cc. The more retro bikes have a better range – between 600 and 900cc. There are even bikes which have a massive 1000cc or more known as superbikes.

It’s no good investing in a superbike expecting to be able to ride it when you have little experience. A mid-range sports bike may seem dull, but it’s a good place to start.

To give you more details about these bike types…

A beginner bike has an engine size that isn’t too daunting and is also easy to repair.

Retro bikes seldom have items like windshields but also have more power, either two or three cylinders. You might possibly consider them all-rounders.

Cruiser Style Bike

The adventure style motorbike can handle everything from mud to gravel. Sports touring is a subdivision of these types of bikes.

The cruiser has a striking design with a large engine and huge handlebars. If you wish to see the US coast-to-coast then the cruiser is the way to go.

The superbike is more dependent on aerodynamics to keep it on the road. Though as said above it’s daunting, there are still superbikes with less than 1000cc which are still thrilling to drive.

New Types of Bike:

Honda MiniMoto

There are a number of new types which the general public might not immediately call motorbikes such as the supermoto, the minimoto and the electric motorbike. These may cause you some difficulty: the minimoto is not suitable for interstate roads for instance and electric motorbikes are difficult to recharge when far from home. But they have the plus point of being new and exciting.

Limited Editions:

Ariel Ace Iron Horse

The more expensive bikes tend to be limited editions, and many are only available unofficially.

There are lightweight versions such as Ariel Ace Iron Horse, thanks to its skeletal look. It may seem like a sportbike but it’s so much more.

Although older bikers remember Marlon Brando or James Dean these names aren’t going to cut it for the early twenties market. So, Harley-Davidson (the cruiser type referred to above) are going for unique names such as Neiman Marcus Limited Editions.

Repair:

When it comes to maintenance motorcycle engines tend to be more specialized than car engines. In terms of repair with more select models you may be better off just buying a new bike. That’s the thing with niches though.

For example, the Ducati Panigale V4 is made of exotic material such as carbon fiber and weighs less than 200Kg. So you’re not running down to the parts store for a replacement to bolt in.

There’s a few bikes out there with carbon fiber such as the Suzuki AEM which is great at handling and is comfortable, but is it worth the price? It’s all down to you.

Exploring Wheels

A car or a truck would be nothing without wheels, we even call a car or truck a set of wheels. So, no prizes for guessing that we are talking about various wheel-related facts today.

First the hubcaps.

The hubcap is the small piece at the center of the wheel. Cars with alloy wheels are also known as center caps. They date all the way back to 1680 where they were known as dust caps or grease cover. They also cover the lug nuts – also known as lug bolts.

Most people don’t realize in may cars the rear wheel and the front wheel have different tire sizes. A wider wheel gives a better grip.

Monster Truck Wheels

Wheels that really stand out are the wheels of monster trucks. These must be 66 inches wide and 43 inches high, making them taller than the average person. They are made to fit 25 inch rims. They are really flotation tires and were originally used for tractors and other farm equipment. It takes about two days to prepare even one tire. They are also known as terra tires.

The trucks themselves it goes without saying have strong suspension and four-wheel drive. The first monster truck appeared in the 1970s.

Steering Wheels

If a steering wheel seizes up it may have something to do with the ignition lock. If it binds it may be due to a lack of power steering fluid, or possibly because it is dirty.

Is using a fingerprint lock to protect your steering wheel too much? There are ones on the market which can store up to 20 prints, which is only useful in the case of a community bus of some sort. Most vehicles – even trucks – tend to only have two drivers.

Spares

The spare tire is there in case of not only a flat but also a blowout or burst tire. A burst tire has the more technical name of “impact damage,” which may sound rather vague.

Some specialist tires which have the nickname donut or space saver aren’t seen as permanent tires and should be replaced as soon as you can. If you have a space saver fitted it is also advised not to drive faster than 50 mph just to protect the vehicle.

An external basket to place the spare wheel saves some space in the car. You should always make sure that it is in good condition in order to protect yourself if any of the wheels you regularly use need changing.

On the same subject don’t use a puncture repair kit – almost half of the population say they are unsatisfactory. The problem here is most people would rather keep a repair kit just in case it saves replacing the tire. The repair kit is not as useful as a spare tire so surprisingly these days most cars don’t include a spare tire as standard. How are you supposed to get back on the road without a spare tire? Well roadside assistance has become a popular option. Hopefully we’ve exhausted the topic of wheels for the moment, but only for the moment.

A Look At Alternative Fuels

Are alternative fuels just unprofitable? Well, it seems not. The market for alternative fuel was a massive $392 billion in 2019 and will reach $1,244 in 2027 as oil continues to lose some of its value. The problems at the beginning were due to the price of developing these alternative fuels but environmental incentives have covered some of those costs. Apart from electric cars it’s hard to pinpoint the strongest alternative fuels out there though.

What’s Research is Getting Funded and by Whom?

The US government has been investing in a number of these areas such as hydrogen, biodiesel, ethanol, natural gas and propane. In addition to this they have given out tax incentives to companies such as Ford, Tesla and even Shell. It’s not just the US by the way, it’s happening all over the world.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen cars do produce emissions, but it’s just a mix of water and warm air, so they’re remarkably clean environmentally. They are run by a fuel cell and another plus point is that they contain less volatile potential energy when it’s being stored as fuel. There is an argument to be made that a malfunction in the process of burning the hydrogen could result in an explosion.

Biodiesel

Biodiesel uses hydrocarbons from animals and vegetables, usually in the form of vegetable and animal oils but it can use cooking grease. It can consist of a maximum of 95% regular diesel. If it was manufactured of pure vegetable oil it would increase in expense and would actually impact the environment significantly. The advantage here is when material that has already been used or is created as a biproduct of an existing process is collected and repurposed as fuel.

Biodiesel vehicles are more or less the same as regular diesel vehicles and can be easier to start. It is a better lubricant than conventional diesel as well.

Biogas

A similar substance is biogas made from natural waste; either food waste or sewage which is processed by a digester. Sweden has the largest number of biogas powered vehicles in the world although the UK has started using it for HGVs over the last fifteen years.

Alternate Gas?

Another gas used in engines – not to be confused with gasoline – may be thought of as compressed gas or liquified gas. It tends to be used for the bigger vehicles. As with diesel it harms the environment if enough is used. It must be stored cryogenically (similar to liquid nitrogen), making the gas as cold as possible.

Propane

Propane (also known as liquified petroleum gas) is another fuel produced as a result of refining crude oil. It may also include butane. It’s reasonably priced and has less carbon content than diesel, but unfortunately contains methane, which is considered damaging to the environment because it acts as a greenhouse gas. Propane is not used for heavy vehicles.

Flex-Fuel

Gasoline mixed with ethanol or methanol is called flex-fuel. The strongest sellers of flex-fuel cars are Brazil, then the US (mostly California) and Canada. Brazil grows a lot of sugar cain which makes a good ethanol, so they use higher amounts of it in their fuel.

In North America and Europe it is generally 85% ethanol with 15% gasoline hence the name E85. In Brazil they use E20 and even E100, both representing percentages of ethanol.

It is known as flexifuel or total flex or flex power, depending on the make of vehicle. Around six million vehicles have been created in Brazil since 1979, according to the statistics from the Brazilian Automobile’s yearbook.

A Possible Solution

Sadly, the automobile industry won’t become net zero any time soon but at least the markets are investing in the right areas to help keep cars and trucks on the road. It may still seem like a fad to use alternative fuel, but this could change.

It’s possible the right answer is for a variety or fuels to be employed depending on what’s locally the best option. This could avoid producing mass quantities of one type of pollutant and reduce the amount of fuel and raw fuel ingredients which are shipped long distances. If so we’re not only heading the right direction, Brazil is leading by example.

Dealing Responsibly with A Car and Trailer

How well can you handle a car with a trailer? Here are a few things that operators should keep in mind.

First:

Check to make sure that your vehicle is rated for the size of trailer you intend to tow.

What people don’t do that maybe they should do is test (or retest) their reversing ability before they go on the main roads or, in the case of a RV, vacation.

Check the Coupling:

Some models come with hitches, or mounts, as well as safety chains in a few models. Make sure they are not too loose or too tight – in the latter case the tension may cause the trailer to break. When chains are too long, they drag and spark, which can ignite roadside brush fires.

Safety chains need to be as secure as possible with any damaged chains being removed. It is important to stop them dragging along the ground. If in doubt with the chains, please refer to the manual.

Check the Trailer Brakes:

Many trailers on the road have severe defects, the most common is the brakes failing so it is important to watch out for this.

Proper Equipment:

As well as having approved towing bars you will also need to fit towing mirrors. Failure to do so may lead to three penalty points. Does your trailer have a stabiliser? This will make it easier to handle. You also need to look at the chassis, the lighting (which also means the electricity is working okay if it is an RV) and the wheels.

Check the Load:

Make sure the trailer is not overloaded or the weight makes the trailer unstable. The camber – where it leans to one side – is also important. Most of the weight needs to be at the front when loading.

If it is something like a boat trailer you should check that the tie-downs are all strapped down, and they are all undamaged. It is important that everything is fully secure, and no dirt or similar items can enter the trailer or escape.

Check the Tags and Paperwork:

Before you set out with a trailer or RV it is vital to have the right license. You should stay within the speed limit as you are more vulnerable to accidents.

Trailers should give way to other vehicles-especially smaller vehicles such as cycles and motorcycles. Most people don’t know that a trailer will affect the aerodynamics of a car, including the acceleration and braking. Speaking of brakes, a trailer which weighs over 750 Kg must have working brakes, though brakes are a plus point on any trailer.

Dealing with Trailer Sway:

If you do have to slow down, say you have to deal with strong winds, try to do it gently without applying the brake, which probably means taking your foot off the gas. Also speed up again slowly.

The trailer swaying is a problem in certain types of weather and the driver should attempt to correct it. It is vital you don’t start swerving as it causes accidents with other road users.

Wet roads can also cause a problem because the trailer will have less traction than the car on its own. Again, it’s important to be aware of your environment and be prepared to slow down. Know your limits and the limits of your vehicle and trailer.

The Origin of Sports Cars

As we’ve said in other articles (links) differentiating car categories is a game with blurry lines. The goal of a sports car is to maximize, or prioritize, dynamic performance. It’s technically possible for an SUV, Truck, or Coupe to become a “sports” version if the performance ranks equal to the other aspects of those models. It’s difficult, however, for a passenger or commuter car to have a sports model as the priorities are less compatible.

Sports cars are a strong seller, despite being a less practical car than say a commuter car. The companies which created sports cars at the beginning of the turn of the twentieth century still make sports cars today. One reason could be that people see cars on the racetrack and wish to purchase something similar. Another, oft-given reason is to the thrill of driving. So, there has always been a potential market here.

Going Back to the Early Days

McLaren F1

The term sports cars has its origin in 1919 in the UK but the first reference in the US was in 1928. These were two-seater cars without fixed roofs. It was only after 1970 that you would see a sports car with a fixed roof. These types of cars were previously known as grand tourers. We would later get sports cars which have three seats, one seat for the driver and two for the passenger, such as the McLaren F1 in the 1990s.

But we are getting a long way ahead of ourselves. In the early days there was no real distinction between sports and other cars, apart from the two seats (like the modern-day coupe) and there were early models with four seats, like sports sedans.

The names of the first sports cars are still popular today – Bugatti, Ferrari and Aston Martin.

Not all Sports Models are Still Around

Prince Henry 1914 Oldest Sports Car in the World

One name which has been lost is the Prince Henry Sports Torpedo. This type of car would be easy to overtake by today’s racers as it only reached 80mph. It did stun hundreds at the track, however.

Other long forgotten examples include the Hewson Rocket, which was created in Hollywood, California and the Wildfire which resembled a Jaguar in design with its lightning 6 cylinders and fiberglass body producing something not exactly stable.

The Mercer

The Mercer was created by 1911 in New Jersey, developed by the Roebling family. It was a bit of a stretch them as they had previously specialized in the manufacture of wire rope and designing bridges. They joined up with the Kusers, big names in banking and brewing alcohol. So evidently a group of just plain businessmen who knew where the action was.

Mercer Type 35R

The first Mercer factory was a converted brewery and was named Mercer after a county in New Jersey. It created the Type 35 Runabout, another two-seater racing car this time with 55 horsepower.

It managed to win five out of the first six races it entered, unfortunately losing in the first Indy 500. Although prized for its brilliant handling this was not enough to save two racers who collided “on the track” in Elgin and the adverse publicity meant that racing had to stop – please note that this was in 1914—before fans started coming to the track specifically to see the wrecks. It is a shame that later designs weren’t as good as the Type 35R.

It’s hard to comprehend the slowness of the early sports car when you look at most cars today – not just sports cars, any cars – but at least they are now safer by an astonishing degree. Which is probably just as well.