Cars and Headaches

What causes headaches in a car? Some kids get headaches in a car watching TV or using tablets. The new car smell could start a headache, which does seem unfortunate if you’re lucky to be driving a new car.

Flickering lights may cause migraines – these are generally found when driving late in the afternoon or at night. A similar night-time concern is eyestrain. But driving in the bright sunny hours could also cause a headache, more specifically driving towards the sun’s glare which can be prevented by sunglasses. The beeping of horns and the rush of trucks doesn’t help either.

Migraines

Even worse, a specific type of migraine – hemiplegic migraine – causes a migraine on one side of the face. It is actually forbidden to drive or use machinery if you are prone to hemiplegic migraine.

Tinnitus, an ear-ringing sound, may affect your ability to drive.

Changing altitudes could also trigger a migraine.

Nausea and vomiting are associated with headaches and can be dangerous for drivers behind the wheel. Your vision may also be affected leading to blurred vision, seeing spots or not being able to see objects at the side of your vision which you normally would.

A little-known fact is that the posture of how you sit when driving can also cause headaches, such as not having your shoulders pulled back. This can put pressure at the top of the spine. A “posterior headache” or a headache at the back of the brain is common among truck drivers as the seat and inflexible kind, so it is better to adjust it for your height and make it as comfortable as possible. Having stretches at the usual rest stops can help prevent this condition.

A tension headache is specific to people who drive for long periods, especially on a cold day. It’s a dull head pain, different from a migraine. It’s not unusual to get facial pain.

Plan Ahead to Avoid Headaches

To reduce the chance of a migraine you should find time to plan ahead, know where you are going. To keep the pressure down, stick all your travel details together such as maps, booking info and so on. Eat well, no processed food, find a good source of protein, fat and fiber. Hunger means a decrease in blood sugar levels. There may be obstacles doing this at usual rest stops. Watch out for time zone differences too.

As well as food it’s a good idea to have a bottle of water handy as it can prevent being dehydrated and this can lead to a migraine. Bad drivers tend to clench their teeth or grind their teeth while in tough driving situations. But this tends to cause tension in the face and then headache.

Don’t overdo it, when not driving it’s best to take a break, especially if it’s a long journey.

If you do feel a migraine or headache coming on, pull off the road. If the migraine continues for some time – and unfortunately some of the worst headaches can continue for 3 days – get a friend to pick you up if it’s at all possible.

It’s always the best route to remain safe on the road.

Driving Phobia – What Can Be Done?

Why are there so many names for fear of driving? It has names like motorphobia as well as amaxophobia or ochlophobia. Well, there are a number of things about driving to be afraid of, if the act of driving isn’t enough on it’s own.

Mild Cases

Sometimes it isn’t all that severe, just a few symptoms such as sweaty palms, shortness of breath and a dry mouth whenever you feel like you don’t know where you’re going. Doing things such as visiting new places involves concentration as a driver. Having passengers can make it twice as difficult to perform new tasks. If you feel a bit “mazed” it’s a good idea to find a safe place to take a break.

Then there are the stronger fears. It may be caused at special places like driving over a bridge, changing lanes or driving at night. They fear something bad happening. They may also avoid specific roads, especially if it is connected with an accident. Sometimes they continue to drive more or less normally but suffer discomfort and distress.

An accident for example may possibly mean that you cannot go out in the car again. In some severe cases being adjacent to, or proxy of, can trigger a panic attack. For example, it can also be caused by being in heavy traffic even when you aren’t the one driving. Or, an acquaintance being in an accident not witnessed by you. Or  getting lost (especially in built up areas). In some extreme situations a person might be triggered even watching accidents on television.

Symptoms of amaxophobia include panic, confusion, palms sweating, and quickened heartbeat. It is always a possible to hyperventilate. They may attempt to apply brakes in the car while not actually driving – phantom braking, so a feeling that they aren’t in control and want to change things.

Treatment:

The treatment can include psychotherapy support or behaviour therapy. Having a fear of driving long term (presumably you continue driving) could lead to heart disease.

There may be a lack of understanding from your loved ones who just want a lift. Other people who may lack sympathy could possibly be your employers as many jobs require you to drive. So, your driving phobia could prove costly in the long run as it limit what you can do.

For all these reasons, it’s important to seek help as quickly as possible. Ultimately the best treatment seems to be going back to driving.

Other driving tips:

Other helpful tips are to drive during the day only and have someone with you as much as possible. You may find medication or support groups on phobia could help. Therapy may help get rid of the panic and negative thoughts. A more modern treatment is virtual reality, a type of exposure therapy in a simulated world. Performing the tasks you did in real life, but in a simulator could possibly boost your confidence.

When you return to the car it is worthwhile creating calmness in the car by soothing music, unless it’s at a point when you are tired in which case it’s a no-no. Also try to wear comfortable clothes and shoes. A business suit or similar may not encourage you and it’s likely that you will tense up.

It is unlikely that more experienced drivers will suffer from this condition, but they may do under enough pressure. Again, what is needed is a bit of sympathy if possible.

TTC Electric buses

As with all Electric Vehicles Manufactured today, there are a number of electric bus innovations out there and they still come with pluses and minuses.

TTC Electric Bus

There is a market for these electric buses. The Toronto Transit Commission is participating in a new pilot program aimed at reducing carbon emissions by using electric buses for public transit, and the city of Gothenburg ordered 145 electric buses from Volvo.

The TTC is still trying to weigh the cost of the new busses verses the cost of fuel and despite the huge purchase Gothenburg still has 65% of their fleet traditional diesel buses.

The idea of Zero City sounds appealing but there is a long way to go. Okay zero emissions is appealing but zero noise may be a worry if you are a pedestrian. As referenced in the video below, drivers have to honk to notify pedestrians of the bus’s approach.

Pros:

A battery electric bus provides better acceleration than a diesel and can climb hills better than diesel vehicles, they also have less maintenance costs. Diesel vehicles are a contributor to air pollution.

Cons:

They can only run for 100 miles generally before they need for recharging 4-5 hours. Plus the whole, silently running over pedestrians thing.

According to Reuters the running costs appear to be better than diesel, but as mentioned above only urban buses can run on electric power.

Longer Range E-Buses

An example of a bus which is more effective than the regular electric bus is the Proterra, a 40 foot bus which can drive up to 329 miles on full charge. They have been producing electric buses for more than 10 years and their sales copy says that it is designed “for the rough terrain of the US.”

Electric buses have a surprisingly long history; the first electric bus was operating in 1807 between Victoria and Liverpool Street stations, which is a 22 mile journey. So, running out of battery wasn’t that much of a problem there.

Green Washing?

There seems to be various reports of a single bus to a single city, for example Gulfport, surely a token gesture. Electric buses shouldn’t be underestimated but why a single bus if they cost the same amount to run? One theory is that not all routes are compatible with the low range on an E-Bus.

A more eco-friendly idea is to make all school buses electric. It’s a positive change, but then why concentrate on school buses? Once again, it comes down to range limits. School busses generally have shorter routes.

CA E-School Bus

The state of California is due to get half its electricity from “renewable resources” so it seems logical that they should have electric buses too. The increase in heavy duty E-Vs (electric buses and trucks) means more industry jobs in assembly, which given the need for more employment is surely a vital necessity? However, many argue that the new jobs are really just traditional bus makers moving to make E-Busses and don’t represent an expansion of employment.

As well as looking at the fuel, the Columbia company (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_Transportation) reduced the height of the step, expanded the door space and made the entry ramp as flat as they could. They specialise in students commuting through the campuses of various US cities. This is a clever look outside the box at what can be done when the large diesel motor goes away.

Other Bus Controversies:

Tesla Cobalt Mine

It’s no use talking about the type of fuel a bus uses if you don’t mention a key controversy around buses—ridership. Empty buses running around hoping someone gets on represent waste no matter what powers them.

The city of Luxembourg has created another innovation: It is one of the first cities it’s size to become fare-free. It is not known as yet if it is a lone wolf or other cities will join it. This should increase ridership, and any idea that can counter pollution is probably a good idea, but where exactly does the financing come from? It looks like we shall have to wait and see.

Are EV’s Truly Environmentally Sound?

One of the more stylish e-buses is arguably the eCitaro G which runs on solid state batteries. Although they currently contain cobalt there are plans to phase this out, again for the sake of the environment.

Ecitaro G Bus

The process of extracting the materials to make batteries and the lack of a good way to recycle or dispose of worn-out batteries poses a serious threat to the soundness of any EV including E-Buses. At least E-Buses don’t require a massive infrastructure build to put powering stations everywhere there is fuel stations currently.

Additionally, renewable energy is an odd term. Technically dams run on water that’s renewable in places it rains, yet environmentalists aren’t happy about dams. Windmills kill birds, create noise pollution, cost more to produce electricity, require acres of land compared to other forms of generation and tend to wear out before they produce the amount of energy it took to make them.

However, environmentalist scientist’s express faith that these problems will one day have an answer. Faith…doesn’t sound like science. Only time (and billions of tax dollars) will tell the fate of E-Buses.

Passenger and Commuter Cars

Op-Ed By P. Wimsett

Does it matter if you commute in a passenger car or drive your family in a commuter car? Probably not, but we still have these distinctions.

Do commuter cars just exist for lonely single people who desire an extra mile per gallon in exchange for not being reminded that you don’t have a family to fill the rest of your vehicle. What happens if you neither commute nor have a family?

To complicate matters…

…All cars may have the description “passenger cars,” since all commercially produced cars these days can carry passengers. By that token, all cars are commuter cars since they are transportation after all. An alternative to the commuter car and the passenger car is the pleasure car, one used purely for weekends but it’s yet to catch on with the general public.

There are other ways to define cars – a minicompact, a compact and midsize, though a midsize vehicle can also describe pickups and vans.

The truth is it’s hard to market anything that’s all things to all people so it’s practical to put a primary use forward when describing your car to the marketplace—even if consumers don’t always use a certain car for that purpose.

Then the question is, is there a design difference between Commuter and Passenger Cars? Yes! But not a huge one. Passenger cars make a priority of seating capacity, with legroom, smoothness of ride and gas milage a bit behind in the design priority list.

So, what is a Good Commuter Car?

Dacia Duster

Now to commuter cars, you need a way of dealing with excess amount of traffic such as the infotainment system. The greater the size the greater fuel bills. Commuter cars tend to be vehicles such as a subcompact or coupe. There’s no reason to have a big car if you only use it to commute.

SEAT Terraco

Dacia Duster and Toyota Corolla are two examples of regular commuter cars. Electrical alternatives include the SEAT Terraco and the Audi 35 TFSH. If you have an especially long commute you need to look at air conditioning and possibly heated seats for your own sanity and maybe health. Look for a car noted for comfort, cruise control, wifi and hotspots, look at the Vauxhall Insignia or the Ford Focus which has eight engines and a strong EcoBlue color.

The Toyota Hybrid may not have the best hood, because it is a crossover, not a regular SUV.

Another Toyota, the Camry makes the most of not being a hybrid in terms of its four cylinders.

Can you do Both?

Sure, the Vauxhall Passat for example, has features you don’t automatically expect – those being the spacious seat area and the trunk. It’s a good all-rounder rather than purely a commuter car? Who said sorting out these cars was easy?

VW Jetta

The VW Jetta is a small sedan which offers a smooth ride with its supportive and stylish seats. Its selling point is that some people don’t like a hatchback. (The VW Golf has cornered the VW hatchback niche). According to Volkwagen’s own figures it has sold about 14 million units of this model since it was introduced in 1980.

The passenger and the commuter car owner want different things from their car. True there are more convenient ways of dividing the drivers; no one can convincingly say there are two types of driver.

In the end, it’s nice to have a primary function a car was designed around as a handy starting point when you start searching for a car.

Why The Car Industry Is So Vital

OP-ED By P. Wimsett

The building of cars is the number one industry in the US and other countries. This is why in a pandemic economy it has been protected by the government.

There’s more to it than that though. You need to able to travel to school or work. Then you have business conferences, expos and similar. Added to this, various aspects of the entertainment, travel & leisure industry/hotels, theaters and sports arenas…the list goes on and on. It’s all about people being at the right place when you need to be there. So, there is a definitely an argument to be made that transportation impacts ever other industry on some level.

But is domestic manufacture vital as an industry?

The History of American Car Making

The mass production of cars was famously begun by Henry Ford. He also created large plants or super factories as well as moving assembly line. This was the only way a Model T could be created every 24 seconds.

The superfactory infrastructure was also vital in getting the time down, having a glass factory and a steel mill as well as a number of other plants in the general vicinity. If you have to rely on deliveries the process breaks down.

There is an argument for assembling cars one at a time in a shed using parts (glass frames, radiators etc) but it would be very unlikely to make a profit. Some luxury sports cars are made this way. This business model relies on having a car ordered in advance of making it and these cars are by definition, luxury (not needed) meaning if they aren’t made the buyer can simply get a different car elsewhere.

If we’re only looking at vital cars, then we’re looking at affordable cars or vehicles built to a vital purpose like hauling goods to market. Affordable cars need to be mass produced not made to order. A modern car factory needs to work at 80% capacity just to break even. You also have the difficulty of maintaining working conditions in a small environment. So, a superfactory is better.

Well, this might be an exaggeration as it would be hard to visualize the big-name cars being “clinker-built.” It wouldn’t be safe, it wouldn’t be quick and it wouldn’t be economical. So, it could be said that the superfactory system is the only way.

As well as the factories you also need showrooms and forecourts (auto lots) as well as the annual motor-shows for the system to work. With motor-shows being cancelled (most notably the one in Detroit but there usually hundreds around the world) and car lot sales so restricted that sales in general are breaking down.

Detroit

To examine how vital the industry is, it is probably worthwhile to focus on the city of Detroit. What sort of city would it be without the Big Three-General Motors, Ford and Chrysler? And what would the US economy be without these three names? There are so many questions and because we are still living through it, so few answers as yet.

Although the Big Three are no longer the biggest names in car processing they are still big enough to the US economy to be protected.

So, this is where we are, in a non-industrialized state of limbo. For our own good this state of affairs cannot continue for that much longer. There is the health risk, true, but poverty in a country causes mental complications. How long can the US economy survive on handouts from the government, which is really barrowing against the future? No one knows, but it appears we’re going to find out.

Fill ’er up…

We do it every day, fill up the car with gas or diesel. But it might be worthwhile looking at gas stations themselves. Many are owned by the big names such as Shell and Gulf, and fair number of the smaller names have gone under.

What we commonly call a “gas station” in the US is more technically called a “Filling Station” as the idea was to supply automobiles with whatever sort of fuel or lubricant they needed—be it gas or deasil, oil, and yes, Propane.

They became known a little later as service stations when they were combined with small mechanic shops to provide basic tire and engine repair functions. Later still, the service portion was remodelled to include snacks and beverages, which came at a high mark-up because they were convenient. This was, of course, called a convenience store.

A Little About Gas Station Design

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filling_station

Filling stations typically offer one of three types of service to their customers: full service, minimum service or self-service.

Full service An attendant or gas jockey operates the pumps, often wipes the windshield, and sometimes checks the vehicle’s oil level and tire pressure, then collects payment and perhaps a small tip.

Minimum service An attendant operates the pumps. This is often required due to legislation that prohibits customers from operating the pumps.

Oregon and New Jersey forbid you to pump your own gas.

Self service The customer performs all required service. Signs informing the customer of filling procedures and cautions are displayed on each pump. Customers can still enter a store or go to a booth to give payment to a person.

Unmanned Using cardlock (or pay-at-the-pump) system, these are completely unstaffed.

The First Gas Stations

The first filling station in the US (and also the world) was built in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1905 at 420 South Theresa Avenue. (The 2nd was in Seattle, WA. BTW). You could get your hands-on fuel prior to that, but it was an add-on to an existing business—like a dry goods or general store. When Henry Ford made the automobile a middle-class purchase the need for a boutique store became obvious. By 1909 a third station was built in Altoona, Pennsylvania. But none of these stations would have looked quite right to the modern eye.

The first “drive-in” station came December 1, 1913 when Gulf Refining Company built it in Pittsburgh, PA.

Historic Gas Stations

In America, when you think gas, you probably think of Texas. There’s an obvious reason why, the oil boon from the start to the middle of the 20th century. The Oil Boom moved Texas from a rural state with lots of ranches to a largely industrial state where petroleum dependent manufacturing could be near the source. Texans depend so much on gas for daily living- so much so that they are known as the “oil patch community” and many of the towns located throughout the state are known as “oil towns.”

Additionally, several oil patch museums are located within the State which are no doubt worth seeking out for anyone with an interest in how Texas became so prosperous. Here are a few examples of Lone-Star States historic gas stations.

The Old Sinclair Station was built in 1933, an interesting part of the façade are the wood-sash windows (metal ones are much more common nowadays). It exemplifies Spanish Colonial architecture service stations which at one time could be found all over the US. These have become increasingly rare, unfortunately.

Schauer Filling Station

The Schauer Filling Station, completed in 1929, can be found in Houston. It consists of a blue bungalow with a wide veranda (where the gas pumps used to be). The building has fallen on hard times, described in 2013 as being in a ruinous condition. Scavengers have been salvaging parts off without asking. It has since been listed as a national historic site, which will hopefully attract someone willing to restore the building, or at least prevent further pilfering.

Jenkins-Harvey Super Service Station

The Jenkins-Harvey Super Service Station and Factory was also built in 1929 and has an Art Deco style with various foliage designs. It was built by local architect James P. Baugh and funded by local businessman Samuel A Lindsey. The gas pumps were removed in the 1980s but it is still in relatively good conditions, probably due to how much concrete is in its construction.

The Phillips 66 gas station in McClean, Texas has a gabled roof and has a general Tudor revival style, as well as a front chimney. Unfortunately, this specific one was completely remodeled in 1991 but still bears some of its old style.

Gas Station Memorabilia

Dino

Not only do gas stations themselves offer an interesting history but sometimes it’s the logos, mascots or other paraphernalia associated with them. Sinclair Gas was associated with a green dinosaur for instance called Dino which can still be found throughout the US. Other mascots included a figure looking at a flame wearing white with the message “Happy Motoring” on their top (Esso), a beaver with a red hat (Buc-ee’s, which also run convenience stores and fast food restaurants) and a blue X with a long nose (Idex; the mascot’s name is Idekkun). There are too many mascots to mention them all here, but generally speaking they are all quite colorful in order to get drivers attention.

Dealing with an emergency vehicle

So, who is in charge when you are on a driving exam? Even though the person grading you on your exam is giving instructions and even though they hold your fate in their hands, you are ultimately responsible for the vehicle because you are the driver.

Actually, the law always takes precedent over the exam proctor during a driving test. They won’t tell you things like, “the speed on this road is 45MPH.” However, the most stressful thing that can happen during a driving test is when an emergency vehicle enters your route. Sometimes an exam proctor will give you instructions in recognition of the extraordinary circumstances but many times they simply wait to see how you react to it.

One of the challenges is that many drivers on the road don’t know what to do when an emergency vehicle comes on the scene. Other vehicles on the road may not behave exactly as you think they should.

So, when you see an emergency vehicle what do you do?

Well, its simple really; pull over. If you don’t pull over and it was safe to do so you will fail your driving test. A police car on the scene can site you for failing to yield but they generally don’t have time.

If you are stuck somewhere where it’s impossible to pull over, you may have to pull over as far as possible for the emergency vehicle to get through. You should also beware that another emergency vehicle isn’t following it (it may not be the same type by the way, for instance if you have an ambulance you may get a police car following on behind).

Remember though it is always advisable only to stop if the situation isn’t hazardous; do not put yourself in danger.

The Toughest Thing About Emergency Vehicles!

Because the sirens are generally on it should give you plenty of time to respond, though you might have initial confusion on where the emergency vehicle is coming from. As with all times on a driving test it is essential not to panic. If you aren’t on a driving test and you were listening to music turn it off until the emergency vehicle has passed.

It is always a good idea to stay especially alert in a situation such as this.

Although you might be tempted to follow an emergency vehicle through traffic, especially if its an ambulance carrying a loved one, do NOT do this. You should be more than 500 feet away from the emergency vehicle at all times.

When you overtake an Emergency Vehicle.

When you see an emergency vehicle at the side of the road you should reduce your speed slightly and change lanes if it is safe enough to do so. If you can’t change lanes you should proceed with caution.

Emergency Vehicles from Different Directions

How exactly you deal with an emergency vehicle depends on where they approach from. If they approach from behind (that is, if you see one in your rear view mirrors) you must attempt to pull over, staying as close to the curb as you can.

If they are approaching from the front you must still stop and pull over. This is in case the drivers in the opposite lane cannot pull over fully.

The difficulty with emergency vehicles may reveal itself at intersections. Ideally, no part of your car should be impeding the emergency vehicle’s progress.

This specific law is known as the “Move Over” law, but it also known as the “Steer Clear” law in Pennsylvania. There may be a specific speed limit for cars that cannot get out of the way of an emergency vehicle, for instance in Texas it is 20 mph below the advertised speed limit.

According to information released by Taylor & Francis Online more firefighters die in traffic accidents than the fire itself, though it does refer to these vehicles being a hazard to other road users. It’s difficult to think of a solution to this problem as a fire engine must get to the incident as quickly as possible.

Winter Car Care

There are so many difficulties with the cold weather. Here are a few tips from your friends at The Kicker.

Dirt!

The salt on the road makes cars become dirty quicker. It is recommended that you constantly wipe your lights with a cloth – 40% of luminosity is lost on gritted roads, according to a road safety charity. It may also mean that your registration plate becomes obscured. So it is important to wipe it down before you leave your house.

Battery

Is your battery fairly new? Cold is hard on batteries and it’s also the worst time to get stranded in a car that won’t start. The battery should be changed every three years. If your car battery is beginning to age it means your car will take longer to start or not start at all.

New batteries can hold their temperature thanks to a substance called “liquid electrolyte solution.” A battery will only totally freeze when the temperature becomes really icy but the colder temperatures mean that transfer of power that occurs in a battery is slowed down and as a result you will have difficulty in starting up.

Also, because people tend to use their lights more at this time of year the battery is drained more; using the windshield wipers and the radio can also have an effect.

Signs of a Bad Battery:

There will be noticeable signs that you have a flat battery when you start the engine up such as not hearing anything when you place the key in the ignition or hearing a whining sound but no motor. Other signs may be that the ignition lights fail to work, or the central locking fails to unlock.

Your engine may be started by jump leads if there is no other way, but it should only be used if there is no other way. You might also carry a portable battery this time of year which allows you to jump you car or the car of a stranger in need.

Be prepared:

It may be life or death to ensure that the tires aren’t worn. If you drive on country roads more than average you may need some snow tires.

What’s important too is to have a survival kit in your car, such a blanket, hot thermos and so on in case you break down. You will need warm clothing for you and all the passengers in the car as well as a shovel and a torch.

Do you need to change the coolant? The coolant needs to be changed every 2-5 years, the exact time is dependent on the coolant used and the type of car.

Another vital part of winter car care is checking the car has been serviced recently. Although most cars need a service every twelve months all cars are different. It’s best to have your car serviced before the worst of winter occurs, if you can.

Wipers

Make sure your wipers work effectively – maybe wipe them with a clean cloth. But if the wipers seem to be stuck it is best to heat the car up. Applying water, which is too hot may crack your windows, so take care. It’s important by law to ensure the windshield washer is full of fluid.

If your car is cold all the time it means that your car will consume more fuel. The car should take 30 seconds to a minute to warm up. If your car takes longer to warm up it should possibly be kept in a garage.

Hopefully these tips can protect you from the worst of the wintry harm out there.

The Road Bridge – An Underestimated Form

Although many drivers think of bridges as a way to travel between point A and B some of them are worth visiting for their own sake. The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco for example.

The Golden Gate connects the San Francisco Bay with the Pacific Bay. A one-mile construction, it was overseen by Joseph Strauss in 1917 but not opened until 1937. It was both the longest and tallest suspension bridge at the time.

Another US bridge which was the largest bridge for its day was the Brooklyn Bridge in New York, unlike the Golden Gate this is a mixture of cable and suspension bridge. Plans were brewing since 1800 for a bridge to connect Brooklyn with the rest of the city. In this case, Roebling with the main engineer, starting with the caissons or platforms for the suspension towers, building the suspension towers themselves and then finally the “road” part of the bridge.

Choosing Joseph Strauss to oversee the bridge was a strange choice as he had no experience or understanding in how to create such a large-scale project, eventually he decided to work from the designs of Leon Moissoiff with Irving Morrow acting as the architect.

In order to get shipping to negotiate under the East River viaducts had to be built on both sides of the bridge. Despite the years of discussion and planning, the bridge was only opened in 1883.

There are more modern bridges which are worth commenting on, such as the Øresund Bridge which opened in 2000, designed for both for road and rail to travel between Sweden and Demark. It runs to Peberholm which is an island in the middle of Øresund Strait. The rest of the journey uses a tunnel.

It has this strange arrangement because a longer bridge would interfere with air traffic from Copenhagen.

The idea for a bridge in this region was planned ever since 1910. Peberholm is a nature reserve. The tunnel consists of two tubes for the railway and two larger tubes as well as well as a smaller emergency tunnel.

There are similar bridge-tunnels in the US such as Chesapeake Bay, Virginia connects Northampton County with Virginia Beach. Hampton Reeds and between Monitor and Merrimas. Many intercontinental railways have their own bridge-tunnels.

A twin sail bridge created in Dorset for road traffic uses double bascules. The two “leaves” open by hydraulic system. It takes two minutes to open. Although it has a similar form to Tower Bridge the use of sails makes for a perhaps more iconic look.

The Uruguay bridge is a circular ring-shaped bridge designed for a mass amount of traffic. The heightened curve slows the car down. There are a number of pedestrian crossings allowing those not in cars or motorbike to negotiate its interesting design.

The Eshoma Ohashi bridge is a bit of a talking point as it goes up at 45 degrees – or so it appears. It’s actually an optical illusion, its rise is nowhere near as steep.

The Dragon Bridge, Da Nang has wonderful selling points, breathes fire at the weekends. It is also lit up in the evenings.

Leonel Viera Bridge

The Leonel Viera Bridge  is a stressed ribbon bridge linking the cities of Punta del Este and La Barra across the Maldonado River [es] in southern Uruguay

Wikipedia

Roads will always need to bridge the gap, so there will be plenty of opportunity in creating innovative designs out there. 

The Confusions Over Utility Vehicles

In one sense every car is a passenger car, although many are also created with another purpose in mind, so when we use the term “passenger vehicle” we’re referring to a car whose primary purpose is to carry groups of people. Many passenger cars have features that ignore things like rough roads, so there is a need for something that carries people and is a bit more rugged, whether this is more one type of vehicle or the other is open to debate.

Utility Vehicles

Utility vehicles are designed for a specific purpose; it isn’t a passenger car alone. Many utility vehicles like SUVs were designed for off-road usage and for towing other vehicles in a way similar to a jeep.

Small utility vehicles are likely to be electric/zero emission. They aren’t as good as jeeps for towing due to their compactness. To add to the confusion, a jeep is called a light utility vehicle, even if there are many utility vehicles which are lighter.

A coupe utility or tray utility vehicle has a cargo “bed” at the back. These are known as ‘utes in the back.’

Sports Cars

Because of the link with sports utility vehicles, it is worthwhile to identify just what a sports car is – one which is designed for on-road driving. As with the SUV both designs are prioritizing handling, power, and acceleration.

The Tesla Cybertruck, which is new for 2021, may be thought of as a cross between a coupe utility vehicle and a sports car; the large storage area of a coupe utility vehicle but with the performance of a sports car. Its appearance is futuristic, note the stainless-steel facade. It also has the 0-60 rate of 2.9 seconds. It has been built for such functions as moving, carrying and towing.

Regular SUVs

A regular SUV has been also referred to as a tall SUV due to its increased height. The purpose of the height is ground clearance so you vehicle can climb over obstacles. Many are 4-wheel drive and may be referred to as 4×4, but technically these can be any car with off-road functionality, so it might be a jeep.

There is a feeling of chunkiness in the design and a long jump to the ground. It has the ability to drive through dirt, mud and some rocky surfaces, though there are limits to how far it can go. Always check it over when you have finished for the day.

Crossovers:

Crossovers are a type of sports utility vehicle crossed with a passenger car; they’re not designed for off-road use as much as a regular SUV. 50% of all SUV purchases are crossovers. There are sub-compact, compact, mid-size and full size crossovers available. In the UK they may be thought of being hatchbacks with some extra styling.

Why buy a crossover? The plus points include a large cargo space, a large passenger area and a nippy engine.

SSVs

An SSV is a small vehicle designed for recreational use. The number of passengers can be from 2 to 6 and the seating is “side by side”. Some SSVs have enclosed cabs, some do not. They are made by manufacturers such as Honda, Yamaha and Kawasaki.

Essentially all SUVs, jeeps, coupe utility vehicles and crossovers are multi-functioning vehicles and they all come down to being of utility or usefulness; whatever your needs.